Sleepiness can result from lack of sleep or interrupted sleep, but when not due to these is generally termed hypersomnia, and can result from abnormal breathing during sleep (sleep apnea), infectious diseases such as encephalitis in the past and mononucleosis presently, obesity (generally associated with sleep apnea) and sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. Sleepiness may also occur without discernible cause (idiopathic hypersomnia).
Breathing disturbance during sleep has been treated with tracheostomy or the application of positive airway pressure during sleep (CPAP), but these are expensive and complicated. Sleepiness resulting from infection has not until recently been considered treatable, but may, in fact, respond to alerting medications used for other sleep disorders.
Stimulants such as amphetamine and methylphenidate have been used for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnolence, but these may have cardiovascular and other adverse effects and are susceptible of abuse, so are strictly regulated in most countries.
Sodium oxybate is also effective for sleepiness as well as the cataplexy that often attends narcolepsy, but it also has the potential for misuse and its prescription is limited. Antidepressants improve narcolepsy and some other sleep disorders but may have significant sexual, weight and cardiac side effects.
Modafinil (Provigil) and its newer relative armodafinil (Nuvigil) promote wakefulness, without direct stimulation and with fewer cardiac and other side effects, by effects on the neurotransmitter dopamine. These are now used for narcolepsy, sleep apnea, sleepiness due to disrupted waking and sleeping schedules due to shifting work and disturbances of the normal circadian rhythms of waking and sleeping.
Insomnia can be intermittent, lasting up to 3 weeks, or chronic, and has many causes, ranging from depression and thyroid over activity to physical pain or mental illness, particularly bipolar disorder, to lifestyle factors such as alcohol or drug use, smoking or television watching or computer use in bed. Identifying and correcting maladaptive sleep patterns or lifestyle choices is often helpful, as is dealing with stress, depression and other issues.
Sedative medications, chiefly barbiturates, and benzodiazepines have been widely used but are not currently recommended, particularly in the long-term, as they cause rebound insomnia and dependence. Some newer sleep facilitating medications such aszalpelon and zopiclone, which work on subpopulations of benzodiazepine receptors, are temporarily effective and may cause fewer problems than benzodiazepines themselves.
Modafinil taken during the day may maintain wakefulness and energy and facilitate nocturnal sleep, but can also cause insomnia if taken too late.
Sleep rhythm disturbances are sometimes caused by travel (jet lag) or by changes in waking and sleeping schedules due to shift work. Modafinil and armodafinil have been particularly effective for the sleepiness occasioned by these factors, and newer sedative agents have been recommended for short-term use. Quaickmedpill, which is an authentic online pharmacy, is going to offer the opportunity of getting these medications at an affordable rate. Sleep behavior disturbances, such as sleep terrors in children and sleep-walking in children and adults, often do not require treatment or will respond to antidepressants.
In addition to their use in the above sleep disorders, modafinil and armodafinil have been shown to improve alertness and enhance performance, and have been used with benefit in Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity. Beneficial effects on mood have been shown as well, and these have been used for depression that has been refractory to other treatments.